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Tower Crane

Technology Summative Assignment
By:
Harry

Due on:
January, 15, 2015
History

- The crane was invented by the Ancient Greeks and Romans in the late 6th century BC and could carry a maximum of 150 kg load

- During the industrial revolution, Sir William Armstrong invented the hydraulic crane.

Greco-Roman Pentaspastos ("Five-pulley-crane") - 450kg
Use Back then (515 BC)

- Lifting Blocks for the construction of Greek Temples

- In the Roman Empire, they further developed Greek to carry a 450kg load for construction of towns and buildings reaching enormous dimensions

Old Crane Modern Re-construction
What it does

- Lifts steel, concrete, large tools, generators and a wide variety of other building materials

- Grows taller with the building

- Can rotate 360 degrees

- Base is bolted to large concrete to prevent it from falling

- Assembling new buildings without using or without the abilities of a mobile crane

Lifting

- Rail connects to the hook with a pulley

- Location of the hook controled by the operator

Dynamic Height

- Climbing Frame slightly larger than the crane is slipped into the crane and can elevate the top of crane while inserting another part of the mast.

Crane Base

- Cranes have a Large Concrete Pad (10x10x1.3 meters)

- Large Anchor Bolts embedded into the pad to support the base of the crane

Machine Details

- No support wires

- Steel trussed sections on the Mast

- Non-attached Max Height: 265 feet (80m)

- Max Reach: 230 feet (70m)

- Counterweights: 20 tons

- It uses one or more simple machines to create mechanical advantage and thus move loads beyond the normal capability of a human.

Trussed Mast
Counterweights
Mechanical Advantage

- Lever (Cointains horizontal beam pivoted about the fulcrum)

- Pulley (Cables are wrapped multiple times round the fixed pulley system and round another pulley attached to the load)

    - "The pulley system delivers a force to the load that is equal to the applied force multiplied by the number of lengths of cable passing between the two blocks. This is the mechanical advantage."

- Hydraulic Cylinder

Ideas and Mind Map
Sketches and Ideas
What I did

- How do cranes grow with the building?

- A machine that can build itself

- I choose the first idea, where I showcase the Climbing Frame

And then I created my mind map

Mind Map
Key Knowledge
Jib
- Arm that carries the load
Slewing Unit
- The part that allows the crane to turn
My Computer Model

My Live Model

Demo
Time!
Jib and Machinery Arm

- Jib is responsible for the movement of the hook and the carry of the load

- Machinery Arm carries the counterweights and some machines

- The load is balanced, so the crane does not tip over by the counterweights

- The machinery is responsible for bringing the crane's neck up and down, or moving the hook back and forth

Jib

Counterweight
Base and Mast

- Base connects to the mast (tower) and further stabilizes the crane.

- Masts connects on top of one another to stack in height, growing with the building it's constructing

Base
Mast
Climbing Frame

- Either free-moving along the mast, or attached to the jib and machinery arm

- Pushes the top up extending the height of the crane

- Another piece of the mast gets pulled up by crane and workers insert it into the mast, extending the final crane's height

Climbing Frame Drawing
Workers Operating Climbing Frame
Slewing Unit and Operator's Cab
Slewing Unit

- The slewing unit sits at the top of the mast

- In charge of turning the entire Jib and Machinery Arm

- Turned with a gear and motor

Operator's Cab

- Pretty much what is it

- Operator controls, where the hook is, when to rise and drop, how far to turn and pretty much everything that happens in the crane is controlled here.

Overview
Tower Crane Assembly
Design Changes

- Shrunk the width and length of the mast

- Shrunk the width of the jib

- Removed X supported base

- Changed the material of the counterweight

- Removed Climbing frame clipping

- Removed trussed mast

Improvements

- Add the hook and rail

- Add the Slewing Unit

- Use a more stronger material

- Make a better base

Bibliography

Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RB91Sm-kGJ8
Google Images: https://images.google.ca/?gws_rd=ssl
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crane_%28machine%29
How stuff Works: http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/engines-equipment/tower-crane2.htm
Impress.js: http://bartaz.github.io/impress.js/
Google Sketchup: http://www.sketchup.com/products/sketchup-make

That's all folks, thanks for watching!

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